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Foot & Ankle

Foot & Ankle

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The foot and ankle is a strong and complex structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The foot is subdivided into the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot. The hindfoot is composed of the talus (heel bone) and the calcaneus (ankle bone.) The ankle is the largest bone of the foot. The two long bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, are connected to the top of the heel to form the ankle.

The five irregular bones of the midfoot—the cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform bones—form the arches of the foot which serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot is connected to the hind and forefoot muscles by the plantar fascia.

The forefoot is composed of five toes and the corresponding five proximal long bones forming the metatarsus. Similar to the fingers of the hand, the bones of the toes are called phalanges. The big toe has two phalanges and the other four toes have three phalanges.