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The Spine is made up of 33 individual bones with ligaments and muscles connecting the bones. The spine is the main support for the body and allows standing and movement of bending and twisting. There are muscles and connective tissues that provide support for the bones, discs and joints and protect the spinal cord and nerve roots.

There are four regions to the Spine:

  1. Cervical (neck): Supports the head and stabilizes nerves and muscles to the skull and brain.
  2. Thoracic (upper back): Has thorough stability and attaches to the rib cage to for structure and support to protect the organs in the chest.
  3. Lumbar (lower back) – Has the least amount of the support, however carries most of the upper body weight.
  4. Sacral (tailbone/coccyx): Connects to the pelvis and helps support lower abdominal organs.

The Spine Specialists at Pinnacle Orthopaedics provide their patients with the best surgical and non-surgical care for disorders of the spine. All Pinnacle spine surgeons are fellowship trained and work in conjunction with Physiatrists, Physical Therapists, Neurologists and Neurosurgeons to optimize patient care and patient outcomes.


The Pinnacle Physicians that specialize in injuries and conditions of the spine.